Licensed Countermeasures

Countermeasure Licensees

Current licensees include several of the world's leading technology companies, including:

ALi Corporation
CPU Tech
EM Microelectronic
Inside Secure
NXP Semiconductors

Cryptography Research discovered SPA and DPA and has developed and patented the fundamental countermeasures needed to protect against these attacks. The company owns and actively licenses more than fifty U.S and international patents covering the fundamental countermeasures for DPA attacks. A patent license from Cryptography Research is required to make, use, sell, offer to sell, or import products utilizing DPA countermeasures. Over 7 billion security chips are made each year with DPA countermeasures licensed from Cryptography Research.

Licensed DPA Logo

The trademarked Licensed DPA logo identifies that a product is covered by a DPA countermeasures license from Cryptography Research.

Countermeasure Techniques

Countermeasures to SPA and DPA are covered by CRI’s patents, and include a broad range of hardware and software-based techniques:

Leakage reduction: techniques to make the set or sequence of operations independent of the key as well as hardware and software balancing techniques to reduce variation in the power consumption for different data.

Noise introduction: techniques for adding different types of noise into the power consumption measurements available to the attacker.

Obfuscation: by keeping algorithms secret, the attacker is forced to perform reverse engineering along with power analysis. While we do not recommend this countermeasure, it is better than having no countermeasure at all.

Incorporating randomness: includes techniques for randomizing the data manipulated by the device in a way that still produces the correct result and encompasses techniques such as the masking or blinding of data and keys.

Protocol level countermeasures: applicable when there is flexibility to modify cryptographic protocols used by the device. Protocols are modified so that secrets can be continually refreshed and updated during the lifetime of the device, protecting them from leak exposure.

Further Information

Flexible licensing options are available, including no-cost licenses for academic research. To learn more about patent and technology licensing or to learn how to incorporate DPA countermeasures into a product, please contact Cryptography Research at